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OTHER APPLICATIONS

Wastewater treatment
Paper making
Drilling Mud
Mining
Friction Reducer


Wastewater Treatment: 
Flocculant ZLFLOC ®
Our products have demonstrated to be highly-effective in removing suspended particles and impurities from various types of wastewater. Polyacrylamide is a linear polymer comprised of monomers unit with functional groups of amide that adsorb on to the surface of particles. These particles are bridged together by the long polymer chain drawing the particles closer together. This process is called flocculation and is widely used in wastewater treatment.

 


When aqueous PAM solutions are mixed with sewage, the active amide groups on the polymer chain adsorb onto the surface of suspended material in the sewage and created bridges between them such that they now begin to exclude water from their newly formed structure. Once a small particle, now form larger flocs which can improve sedimentation rates in clarifiers, floatation rates in DAF systems and water removal in sludge thickening equipment. PAM is widely used in domestic sewage treatment, mining tailings pulp & paper making, petrochemicals, chemicals, textiles, oil sands and mining industries.


Municiple Water Treatment:
Municipal domestic wastewater generally contains solid material consisting of organics, cellulose, starch, sugar, lipids proteins, as well as microbiology such as bacteria and virus. Sewage pH is typically neutral. Depending in the exact sewage characteristics, either anionic or cationic polymers can be used. In some cases, it may be beneficial to use an inorganic coagulant such as PAC if the ionic charge of the sewage is very high.


The sludge produces as a waste product of treatment has a pH value generally between 5.5~7.5. Its consistency can range between 1% up to 4% and further dewatering will be required. Sludges are usually treated by cationic polymers prior to use in a thickening device such as a belt press, centrifuge or screw press. The PAM dosage will depend on the equipment selected for dewatering and the desired % solids of the sludge.


Industrial Water Treatment:
PAM is widely used in various industrial wastewater treatment processes including petrochemicals, oil field, meat processing, leather, deer brewing, gourmet powder, textile printing and dyeing industry, food, e!ectroplating , printed circuit board, sugar industry, cooling water, pulp and papers-making and mining tailings.


Paper Making: 
Polymers are used as dewatering and retention aids in the pulp and paper industry. For paper-making, flocculants can improve sheet drainage, formation and filler retention. For pulping processes, flocculants are used in green liquor clarification and pulp dewatering. Both industries will produce wastewater that can be treated with flocculants.
Negatively charged copolymers of acrylamide are widely used as retention aids and dry-strength resins. However, different molecular mass ranges are used for these two roles. Anionic acrylamide copolymer retention aids typically have molecular masses in the range of 5 to 20 million grams per mole. The strength agents typically have molecular masses in the hundreds of thousands. Another difference is in the form delivered to the mill. Though anionic retention aids can be delivered as solid beads or in solution, it is more popular to get them as water-in-oil emulsions. Before such emulsion products can be used they have to be “inverted” with a dilution of about 100-to-1 with a lot of agitation. Further time (at least half an hour) is needed for the individual molecules to uncoil themselves and achieve their full potential as retention aids. The monomers used in their preparation are acrylamide and acrylic acid. The acrylic acid is usually present in its corresponding sodium salt form in the final formulation of retention aid or strength aid. The strength agents are usually shipped as solutions having solids levels in the range of 10 to 50%. A wide range of charge density is available in each case.
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Drilling Mud: 
In oil exploitation, polyacrylamide is mainly used for drilling mud as well as Enhanced Oil Recovery, etc., which is widely used in drilling, completion, cementing,fracturing, enhanced oil recovery and other mining operations in the oil field. ZL’s products have been used successfully for many years as drilling mud additives for flocculant , dispersants, blocking agent , lubricants , fluid loss additive, and shale inhibition agent etc. With the continues progress, ZL devotes to develop the products with optimum performance to meet the increased requirement of water based drilling fluid.
Flocculant
The polarity gene adsorbs the solid particles dispersed in water, bridges between the particles and formats the large aggregates, sedimentation and separates of water, flocculates detritus and clay in drilling fluid.
Dispersant
In the drilling mud treatment, this product can improve the lubricity and stability of the mud to reduce the water loss, prevent sticking effectively, increase drilling efficiency.
Blocking Agent
The product can generate cross linking under the effect of Al3+, Fe 3+, Ca2+ and other ions, a part of high molecular compound is changed from linear shape into body shapes. The product is not water-soluble, and can be adsorbed on the borehole to block ground layer gaps and to prevent the leakage of drilling fluid.
Lubricant
The product can be absorbed on the surface of metal or clay particles to form liquid film to change friction on the solid surface into liquid frication, thereby lubricating drill bits and drills, lowering the mud cake frication coefficient, and reducing underground accidents.
Fluid Loss Additive
The hydrolysis degree is higher, the hydration group on the molecular chain is more, the hydration is better, and it changes from flocculant into fluid loss additive. Drilling mud should be treated to keep cake’s permeability as low as possible in order to maintain a stable borehole and to minimize filtrate invasion, and damage to the pay zone.
Shale Inhibition Agent
The multi-point adsorption of polymer formats to the criss-cross membrane macromolecules, plays a role of enhancing the stability of borehole.
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Mining: 
PAM is widely used as a flocculant or filter aid in mining minerals such as gold, silver, copper, aluminun, iron, tin, coal, lead and zinc. For this industry, the molecular weights of the anionic polymers will range from low to very high. These polymers are used to separate mineral particles of different sizes and densities and separate them from the water they are suspended in. Using PAM as flocculants or filter aids allow for improved settling and capture of recoverable product. resulting in improved production efficiency, reduce failings loss. Bitumen tailings can be easily dewatered by flocculants to minimize the area required for tailings bonds.
Processing field
To separate the mineral solid effectively from water or aqueous solution,we can use PAM for flocculating agent or filter aid agent.
Mining field
PAM is also widely used for the separation of the different density ore mud and grain, precipitation mud, recycling residue, sludge dewatering and wastewater cleaning, etc.


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Friction Reducer: 
In order to fracture shale formations effectively, large volumes of water is required to be pumped into wall frac operations, at very high pressures in short periods of time. Frac water is treated with chemical friction reducers to reduce the loss of pressure from frictional forces during the operation. The friction reducers are high molecular weight polymeric additives, designed to enhance the water displacement in oil wells by considerably reducing the friction pressure experienced during the drilling process.
The anionic, cationic, and non-ionic polyacrylamides are most commonly used as friction reducers in the energy production industry. Friction reducers are used mainly in aqueous base treating fluids with low concentrations. Friction reducer is a highly concentrated surfactant that acts as the drilling fluid lubricant in the operation. When added in the frac water, the friction reducers will uncoil in the drilling process, a torque reducing film is formed both on the drill string and the surface of the mud, and the turbulent flow regime is reduced down to a laminar flow, resulting in lower friction and less pressure loss.
A friction reducer can be in dry-powder form or in liquid form (an oil-based or a water-based). Reductions of 50% to 60% in fluid friction are possible.
The primary function of friction reducer is to allow the application of full treatment with maximum hydrostatic and pumping pressure and pumping rate, without having excessive friction pressures during the operation.


Applications:
Applications are versatile through ‘on-the-fly’ method by continuous adding into stimulation fluids or by batch mixing before treatments.
Batch mixing: mix friction reducer with water (fresh, TDS water, actual field water), before injection.
On-the-fly: inject friction reducer along with water injection when needed.
Typical application rate range from 0.1 gpt up to 1.5 gpt. Individual water characteristics will direct addition rate for optimum conditions.

ZL friction reducers are designed to be used in different kinds of water, especially effective in high saline water. ZL friction reducer will reduce friction by as much as 60% or more.


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